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One of the keys to a better version of you, mentally and physically, is sleeping well. We want all of our industry members to sleep as well as they can that’s why EIC have partnered with Sleepstation. Sleepstation is a clinically validated sleep improvement programme that can help you learn how to control and optimise your sleep to get the best sleep possible. Designed by experts and backed by science, the online service is proven to combat even the most severe insomnia. Their team will help you identify the underlying causes of your sleep problem and provide the personal support and guidance needed to improve your sleep. Sleepstation delivers remote care with a personal touch and that's what makes it so effective. Therapeutic support through Sleepstation is available to those in need and meeting our charity eligibility criteria.

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To coincide with breast cancer awareness month the Electrical Industries Charity are putting the spotlight on women’s health. We’ll discuss some of the key issues facing women and how we can support women in an industry which is 85% men.


October Know Your Lemons

Health Challenge: Know Your Lemons
This month we focus on women’s health and breast cancer in particular. Take part in ‘Know Your Lemons Challenge’.

Why?

Join in this month to learn signs of breast cancer, raise awareness and support those going through breast cancer journey in our sector.

How?

  • Learn the 12 signs of breast cancer by reading our October Health Calendar below
  • Bite a lemon for 12 seconds! Share the video/photo with the following text:

I know what the signs of breast cancer are! Do you? Learn about breast cancer and the support EIC provides to our industry and donate if you can. Check out EIC Health Calendar here: https://bit.ly/2KAll4g #BreastCancerAwareness @electricalcharity @knowyourlemons

  • Challenge 5 female industry friends to do the same by tagging them in your post
  • Donate to EIC and encourage others to donate too so we can continue supporting electrical industry: https://bit.ly/3pHkGxJ

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Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in the UK. Most women diagnosed with breast cancer are over the age of 50, but younger women can also get breast cancer. About 1 in 8 women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetime. There's a good chance of recovery if it's detected at an early stage.

What is breast cancer and how does it start?

Breast cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the breast grow in an uncontrolled manner. It occurs in both men and woman, but women are at greater risk due to their breast development and lifelong exposure to oestrogens. Cells that grow abnormally can form tumours. Breast cancer occurs when breast tumours spread. There is generally a long period between breast tissue changes and development of breast cancer.

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Around half of the world’s population will go through the menopause. Although roughly 3.5billion people will experience the menopause for a lot of us the menopause is still a taboo topic, one which we don’t know much about and a subject which may leave many of us feeling a little uncomfortable. Experiencing menopause can be challenging especially coupled with other personal or workplace stressors. The electrical and energy sector in 85% male and consequently a lot of those who live with menopausal symptoms cannot find support within their work environment. The Electrical Industries Charity are here to support those in the sector who may be struggling with the menopause and the symptoms, both physical and mental, that it can cause.

Lisa had worked within electrical engineering and design for 12 years she enjoyed work and had always felt well-supported within her work environment. Lisa was enjoying her thirties and believed she had plenty of time to have children and start a family. A few weeks after her 35th birthday Maria began to experience hot flushes, night sweats, difficulty sleeping and a reduced libido. Lisa initially discarded her symptoms but after doing some online research she established, she may be experiencing early onset menopause. Lisa was at a loss, she felt out of control and betrayed by her body. Lisa felt her partner would resent her and was afraid to tell him as she feared she could no longer have children. Not sure on who to turn to Lisa contacted the support team at The Electrical Industries Charity. Lisa was assigned a caseworker and the Charity established Lisa needed external support for both her physical and mental health.

Fearful to make the first steps herself Lisa asked her case worker to contact her GP surgery. The Electrical Industries Charity requested Lisa’s GP run the suitable tests to establish if she was actually experiencing early onset menopause. Lisa was subsequently given a bone density test, blood test and genetic testing. The Charity also encouraged Lisa to speak to her partner and be open about what she was experiencing. Although Lisa’s caseworker understood it was daunting and sympathised with her worry it was important for Lisa to be honest. After establishing she was suffering with early onset menopause Lisa spoke to her partner. While he was understandably surprised and upset, he did not reject Lisa, instead he supported her in her next steps and communication with the Charity.

Lisa was experiencing fairly severe mood swings and found herself far more irritable. The Charity discussed Hormonal Replacement Therapy (HRT), a treatment which replaces low levels hormones during the menopause. The HRT helped to ease Lisa’s symptoms including hot flushes, mood swings and night sweats plus her libido returned. Although Lisa’s physical symptoms were eased, and her partner was incredibly supportive Lisa was still struggling to come to terms with the profound sense of loss she felt. The Electrical Industries Charity sourced and funded a therapist for Lisa so she could work through her feelings of loss and hopelessness. Lisa partook in four funded therapy sessions and she is now focusing on the things she can control and change in her life. Since undertaking HRT and therapy sessions Lisa is in a much better place. Lisa and her partner have since become fosterers and have enjoyed nurturing several children on both a short term and longer-term basis. The Electrical Industries Charity support team have since closed Lisa’s case, but Lisa regularly sends updates and has even taken part in challenge events to support the charity.

The Electrical Industries Charity can be your support line. If you are struggling with a diagnosis, symptoms of a diagnosis or emotionally please contact the support team on This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or call 0800 652 1618.

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Dealing with a diagnosis of cancer can be really tough especially when you are not sure on how best to support your loved one who is living with cancer. Understandably, the word cancer can evoke a lot of feelings of worry, sadness, shock, and fear. When a loved one is diagnosed with cancer it can be really difficult to understand and process your own feelings. You may feel guilty for being upset, angry, numb and you may even feel resentful. While it is important to support our loved ones, who are living with cancer it is also important to support ourselves and process our own emotions.

Dan, a nuclear engineer from Cumbria, approached the Electrical Industries Charity after his wife, Emily, was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer. Since his wife was diagnosed with breast cancer six weeks earlier Dan had been struggling to come to terms with her diagnosis. Emily had been the emotional and physical support structure of their family. Emily organised play dates, dinners, birthday cards, doctor’s appointments and ran a successful baby clothing website and brand. Dan was struggling to understand how Emily, a 32-year-old, had developed cancer and now had a 70% chance of survival. Dan felt resentful at the world, guilty that he as a smoker was completely healthy, and he was incredibly anxious about Emily’s health and the wellbeing of their children.

The Electrical Industries Charity support team spoke to Dan and encouraged him to acknowledge his feelings and process them. Ignoring feelings can seem like a good idea especially if you want to completely focus on your loved one’s treatment but by ignoring your emotions you are impacting your wellbeing and potentially the people you are trying to support. The Charity offered Dan talking therapy and extended the offer to Emily also. Dan commented Emily seemed to be coping miraculously well and this compounded his feelings of guilt. The Charity explained to Dan although Emily may appear, she is coping well she is probably still experiencing fear, shock and grief but her coping mechanisms may be different. The Charity asked Dan to speak to Emily and understand how she was dealing with her emotions. Dan wanted to take part in talking therapy but was conscious about the time this may take away from caring for Emily, his children and work. The Electrical Industries Charity liaised with his workplace so Dan could take time in his workday for therapy sessions.
The Charity sourced and funded talking therapy sessions for Dan so he could offload his feelings in a safe space. Dan undertook six sessions of funded therapy which helped him to process his feelings and understand how to cope when he experienced different emotions during Emily’s cancer journey. Dan’s charity support worker also signposted him to MacMillan cancer support charity who the Electrical Industries Charity have been partnered with since 2018. MacMillan have a wealth of information and support available and Dan was able to connect with other spouses who were supporting partners through cancer.

Emily underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy to treat her breast cancer. Despite best efforts the cancer was not completely eradicated, and Emily then made the difficult decision to have another round of chemotherapy and a mastectomy. Seven months post mastectomy Emily’s cancer has not returned, and doctors are hopeful Emily continues with a clean bill of health. Dan’s case with the Electrical Industries Charity remains open and his caseworker consistently checks in with Dan and his family. Dan is assured should he ever need more support in any capacity the Charity can support him. The Electrical Industries Charity can support you and your family through the Employee and Family Programme for the electrical and energy sector. If you need assistance, please contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or 0800 652 1618.

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Breast cancer is a diverse group of diseases. Sub-types have different properties in relation to hormone sensitivity and invasiveness as well as menopausal status. Invasive ductal breast cancer occurs in epithelial cells that line the breast ducts and accounts for around 80% of all breast cancers. Invasive lobular breast cancer occurs in lobes and accounts for around 10% of breast cancers. Hormone receptor positive cancers are those that grow in response to high concentrations of oestrogen, progesterone and/or human epithelial growth factor 2 (HER2). The most common of these is oestrogen receptor positive cancer. Cells from these tumours produce additional oestrogen receptors and depend on oestrogen to grow. Triple negative breast cancer is a rarer type of breast cancer which does not have additional receptors for oestrogen, progesterone or HER2. It is more common in younger women and tends to be more aggressive.

In situ breast carcinoma (also called non-invasive breast cancer) is an early form of breast cancer, which remains localised to the breast. The most common form is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); if left untreated DCIS may become invasive. Another common non-invasive breast cancer is lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). This type of carcinoma is not cancerous (so does not spread), although its presence is correlated with an increased chance of developing cancer at a later stage.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK with one woman diagnosed every 10 minutes.
Around 55,000 women and 370 men are diagnosed with breast cancer every year in the UK

  • In England, every year around 46,000 people are diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • In Scotland, every year around 4,700 people are diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • In Wales, every year around 2,900 people are diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • In Northern Ireland, every year around 1,400 people are diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • A further 7,000 people are diagnosed with DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ), an early form of breast cancer, in the UK every year.

Breast cancer facts and figures

  • One in seven women in the UK will develop breast cancer in their lifetime.
  • Eight out of 10 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in women aged 50 and over.
  • One-quarter of cases are diagnosed in women aged 75 and over.
  • Just over 10,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 50 every year in the UK. 
    Of these, nearly 8,000 women will be in their 40s. 
  • Around 2,200 women in the UK are diagnosed aged 39 or under, or just 4% of all cases. 
  • Almost nine in 10 (87%) women survive breast cancer for five years or more. 
  • Breast cancer survival is improving and has doubled in the past 40 years in the UK.
  • The proportion of breast cancer cases that can be prevented is estimated to be between 23%-37%.

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Breast cancer can have several symptoms, but the first noticeable symptom is usually a lump or area of thickened breast tissue. Most breast lumps are not cancerous, but it's always best to have them checked by a doctor. You should also see a GP if you notice any of these symptoms:

  • A change in the size or shape of one or both breasts
  • Discharge from either of your nipples, which may be streaked with blood
  • A lump or swelling in either of your armpits
  • Dimpling on the skin of your breasts
  • A rash on or around your nipple
  • A change in the appearance of your nipple, such as becoming sunken into your breast
  • Breast pain is not usually a symptom of breast cancer.

It’s important to check your breasts for lumps, bumps or anything out of the ordinary.

breat cancer symptoms

Check regularly
We believe boob checking should be a monthly habit, so that you will notice any unusual changes quickly. By checking on a regular basis, you will also build confidence of knowing what is normal for you each month. Everyone has to start somewhere, so don’t worry if you’re not feeling confident straight away.

Know what’s normal for you
Being breast aware simply means knowing what is normal for your boobs or pecs. If you have periods, it’s likely you’ll find that your boobs will naturally change as part of your cycle each month. It is important to get to know the normal rhythm of your boobs so you will be able to detect anything unusual quickly.

Look and Feel
Many of the signs and symptoms of breast cancer are changes you would only notice by looking at the appearance of your boobs. We recommend coppin’ a feel and taking a look during your checks

Remember your Collarbone and armpits
Breast tissue isn’t only found in your boobs. It reaches all the way up to your collarbone and underneath your armpit so this whole area should be checked each time too. This is the same for both men and women.

If in doubt, get it checked out
Your doctor is the only person who can refer you for further examination so we encourage people to visit their doctor after a week of monitoring the symptom if it doesn’t go away. 

Here are some things to look out for when checking your breasts
As a woman over 50 within the UK you will begin to receive letters regarding breast cancer screenings

What happens during breast screening?
Breast screening involves having an X-ray (mammogram) at a special clinic or mobile breast screening unit. This is done by a female health practitioner. Your breasts will be X-rayed 1 at a time. The breast is placed on the X-ray machine and gently but firmly compressed with a clear plate. Two X-rays are taken of each breast at different angles. If you have a cancerous growth in your breasts you will be tested further and a doctor will find out more about the growth and position of the cancer.

This is called staging
A doctor decides the grade of the cancer by how the cancer cells look under the microscope. This gives an idea of how quickly the cancer might grow or spread. Knowing the stage and grade helps your doctors plan the best treatment for you. You will then receive treatment dependent on the stage of cancer. This treatment can range from mastectomy to chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormonal therapy.

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If you are diagnosed with breast cancer there is support out there for you. We work alongside Macmillan cancer support to help you during the most difficult of times.

Macmillan Cancer Support Line:  The Macmillan Support Line offers confidential support to people living with cancer and their loved ones. If you need to talk, we'll listen. 0808 808 00 00 - 7 days a week, 8am - 8pm

Email  / Chat online: 7 days a week, 8am - 8pm

Online Community:  An anonymous network of people affected by cancer which is free to join. Share experiences, ask questions and talk to people who understand.

Help in your area: What's going on near you? Find out about support groups, where to get information and how to get involved with Macmillan where you live.

There is a multitude of charitable organisations which can help you

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If a friend or family member has been diagnosed with breast cancer, there are a number of things you can do to help or support them.

  1. Practical support:
    Many people want to carry on doing as much as possible during their treatment. However, side effects can often make it more difficult to continue with everyday tasks and asking for help is not always easy. Knowing how to help can sometimes be difficult. As well as thinking about what your friend or family member might need help with, it’s important to think about what you’re able to do and how much time you’re able to commit. Offering specific help means both parties understand what’s on offer. For example, rather than saying ‘What can I do for you?’ it might be better to say ‘Would you like me to pick the children up from school tomorrow?’.

    Things you might offer to help with include:
    - cleaning and vacuuming
    - clothes washing and ironing
    - gardening
    - cooking meals for freezing
    - transport to and from hospital appointments
    - taking children to or from school
    - babysitting
    - Some people may be reluctant to accept help or even feel embarrassed about the help that’s being offered. This can sometimes feel hurtful, but it’s important to some people to maintain a sense of normality and to continue to do things even when doing so is very difficult.

  2. Emotional support:
    Most people are shocked to hear they have breast cancer and experience many different emotions including anger, fear, sadness and depression. Feelings can change from day to day and even hour to hour. It’s often difficult to know what to say and how best to support someone. Just being alongside someone and allowing them to express how they’re feeling is probably one of the most important ways of supporting them. Try not to be afraid of tears that may be shed – it may be a helpful way for your friend or relative to express how they’re feeling. If it’s appropriate, holding hands or giving them a hug is a useful way of showing your support.
    If someone is feeling angry about their diagnosis they may direct this at you. This can be hurtful – particularly if you’re trying to support them. But try to remember this is often because they’re upset about having cancer, rather than being upset with you. Listening to your friend or relative talk about how they’re feeling can sometimes be difficult or distressing, but it might be really helpful to them to express how they’re feeling.
  3. Support for you:
    Supporting a friend or relative can be very demanding and upsetting. To be able to continue to support your friend or relative, you need to look after yourself. Depending on how involved you are it’s important to eat well, get some regular exercise and a good night’s sleep and have some time to yourself. If you’re finding it difficult to do these things and are feeling overwhelmed, let a friend, family member or your GP know. 
    There are a number of places you can turn to for additional support, including:
    - Breast Cancer Now’s Helpline, online Forum and Someone Like Me service
    - Samaritans
    - Carers UK

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It is important to remember that there are no set rules and every friendship is different. Be sure to think about your unique dynamic and let that guide you as you try to support your friend. Keep it simple. Remember that often the little things mean the most.

Take Time to Prepare Yourself
Here are some things to consider before talking to a friend who has cancer:

  • Process your own feelings beforehand. Learning that a friend has cancer can be difficult news to hear. Take time to acknowledge and cope with your own emotions about the diagnosis before you see him or her. This way, you can keep the focus on your friend.
  • Learn about the diagnosis. Your friend may not want to talk about the details for many reasons. It can be physically and emotionally tiring to repeat the same information to different people. If possible, the person’s spouse or a mutual friend may be able to give you the basics. Write it down and repeat it back to them to be sure you have the correct information. If there is information that is unknown or not shared, do not push for more.
  • Think about it from your friend’s perspective. Remember a time when you were scared or felt sick. Think about what it felt like. What did you want to talk about? How did you want to be treated? You may also want to prepare yourself for changes in your friend’s appearance. Fatigue, weight loss, and hair loss are common side effects of cancer and many treatments. Start your visit by saying “It’s good to see you” instead of commenting on any physical changes.

Although each person with cancer is different, here are some general suggestions for showing support:

  • Ask permission. Before visiting, giving advice, and asking questions, ask if it is welcome. Be sure to make it clear that saying no is perfectly okay.
  • Make plans. Do not be afraid to make plans for the future. This gives your friend something to look forward to, especially because cancer treatment can be long and tiring.
  • Be flexible. Make flexible plans that are easy to change in case your friend needs to cancel or reschedule.
  • Laugh together. Be humorous and fun when appropriate and when needed. A light conversation or a funny story can make a friend’s day.
  • Allow for sadness. Do not ignore uncomfortable topics or feelings.
  • Check in. Make time for a check-in phone call. Let your friend know when you will be calling. Also, let your friend know that it is okay not to answer the phone.

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Survival for breast cancer is generally good, particularly if you are diagnosed early. This is probably because of screening, early diagnosis and improved treatment. Survival depends on many different factors. So no one can tell you exactly how long you will live. It depends on your:

  • Type and stage of cancer
  • Level of fitness
  • Previous treatment

Survival by stage:
No UK-wide statistics are available for different stages of breast cancer or individual treatments. These figures are for survival by stage for women in England, five years after diagnosis. These are from women diagnosed between 2013 and 2017 and followed up to 2018.

Stage 1 - Most women (around 98%) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after diagnosis.
Stage 2 - Around 90 out of 100 women (around 90%) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after diagnosis. 
Stage 3 - More than 70 out of 100 women (more than 70%) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after diagnosis. 
Stage 4 - Around 25 out of 100 women (around 25%) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they are diagnosed. The cancer is not curable at this point, but may be controlled with treatment for some years. It is important to remember that for the most part a breast cancer diagnosis does not mean an end-of-life diagnosis.

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Young cervical cancer diagnosis:
Cervical cancer develops in a woman's cervix. It mainly affects sexually active women aged between 30 and 45. Cervical cancer is when abnormal cells in the lining of the cervix grow in an uncontrolled way. The cervix is part of the female reproductive system. It is the opening to the vagina from the womb. Around 3,200 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer in the UK each year. That’s nearly 9 cases diagnosed every day. 

Cervical cancers and cervical pre-cancers are classified by how they look in the lab s with a microscope. The main types of cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Most (up to 9 out of 10) cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. These cancers develop from cells in the exocervix. Squamous cell carcinomas most often begin in the transformation zone (where the exocervix joins the endocervix). Most of the other cervical cancers are adenocarcinomas. Adenocarcinomas are cancers that develop from glandular cells. Cervical adenocarcinoma develops from the mucus-producing gland cells of the endocervix. Less commonly, cervical cancers have features of both squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. These are called adenosquamous carcinomas or mixed carcinomas.

Cervical cancer statistics:

  • In females in the UK, cervical cancer is the 14th most common cancer, with around 3,100 new cases in 2017.
  • Cervical cancer accounts for 2% of all new cancer cases in females in the UK (2017).
  • Cervical cancer in England is more common in females living in the most deprived areas.
  • Cervical cancer is more common in White females than in Asian females, but similar to Black females, but Asian and Black females are similar to each other.
  • An estimated 34,800 women who had previously been diagnosed with cervical cancer were alive in the UK at the end of 2010.
  • There are around 850 cervical cancer deaths in the UK every year, that's more than 2 every day (2015-2017).
  • In females in the UK, cervical cancer is the 19th most common cause of cancer death, with around 850 deaths in 2017.

The symptoms of cervical cancer are not always obvious, and it may not cause any at all until it's reached an advanced stage.
This is why it's very important to you attend all your cervical screening appointments.

Unusual Bleeding:
In most cases, abnormal vaginal bleeding is the first noticeable symptom of cervical cancer.

This includes bleeding:
• during or after sex
• between your periods
• after you have been through the menopause

Visit your GP for advice if you experience any type of abnormal vaginal bleeding.

Other Symptoms:
Other symptoms of cervical cancer may include pain and discomfort during sex, unusual or unpleasant vaginal discharge, and pain in your lower back or pelvis.

Advanced cervical cancer:
If the cancer spreads out of your cervix and into surrounding tissue and organs, it can trigger a range of other symptoms, including:

• pain in your lower back or pelvis
• severe pain in your side or back caused by your kidneys
• constipation
• peeing or pooing more often than normal
• losing control of your bladder (urinary incontinence) or losing control of your bowels (bowel incontinence)
• blood in your pee
• swelling of one or both legs
• severe vaginal bleeding

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Cervical screening (a smear test) checks the health of your cervix. The cervix is the opening to your womb from your vagina. It's not a test for cancer, it's a test to help prevent cancer. All women and people with a cervix aged 25 to 64 should be invited by letter. During the screening appointment, a small sample of cells will be taken from your cervix. The sample is checked for certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) that can cause changes to the cells of your cervix. These are called "high risk" types of HPV. If these types of HPV are not found, you do not need any further tests.

If these types of HPV are found, the sample is then checked for any changes in the cells of your cervix. These can then be treated before they get a chance to turn into cervical cancer. You'll get your results by letter, usually in about 2 weeks. It will explain what happens next.

HPV and Cervical Cancer Prevention: 
Currently, the national NHS HPV vaccination programme uses a vaccine called Gardasil. Gardasil protects against 4 types of HPV: 6, 11, 16 and 18. Between them, types 16 and 18 are the cause of most cervical cancers in the UK (more than 70%).

From September 2019, the first dose of the HPV vaccine will be routinely offered to girls and boys aged 12 and 13 in school Year 8. The second dose is normally offered 6 to 12 months after the first (in school Year 8 or Year 9). People who miss either of their HPV vaccine doses should speak to their school immunisation team or GP surgery and make an appointment to get up-to-date as soon as possible. It's important to have both doses of the vaccine to be fully protected. People who were eligible for HPV vaccination in school Year 8 but who missed it can still be vaccinated on the NHS up to their 25th birthday. People who start the HPV vaccination after the age of 15 will need 3 doses as they do not respond as well to 2 doses as younger people do.

Even if you have had the HPV vaccine, it is still incredibly important to still attend regular smear tests. You will usually have your smear test at your GP or sexual health clinic. If you have questions or worries, let the nurse or doctor know. They will try to make you comfortable.

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When you are ready you:

  • Undress from the waist down
  • Lie down on your back on an examination couch
  • Will be asked to lie with your knees bent and feet flat on the couch or with your feet together and knees apart. Some clinics have a couch with leg supports.

The nurse or doctor will:

  • Gently put an instrument called a speculum into your vagina
  • Use this instrument to open the vagina just enough to see your cervix
  • Sweep a small soft plastic brush over the cervix to take the sample of cells.
  • The test takes less than five minutes. It should not hurt but sometimes it can feel uncomfortable.

Try not to put your smear tests off, you may feel embarrassed or think they’re uncomfortable but they are your best chance of preventing cervical cancer.

After your smear test

If your cervical screening test shows abnormal cells, you may have a different test to look closely at your cervix. This is called a colposcopy. This test uses a microscope called a colposcope to look closely at your cervix. The colposcopy shows abnormal areas of the cervix and how abnormal the cells there are. Sometimes the doctor or nurse can see during the test that the cells are very abnormal but it is not clear how serious the changes are.

They may:

  • Offer you treatment to remove these cells straight away
  • Take a small sample (biopsy) off the cells to check if you need treatment.
  • If you have a biopsy, results may take 2 or 3 weeks. Ask your doctor or nurse when you will get the results.

Before any treatment, you should be given time and information to make a decision. If you have questions, want more time or are not sure, the treatment can always be done another day. Your doctor or nurse will only offer treatment if they are sure the cells are very abnormal and there is a risk of cancer developing.

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For cervical cancer support you can contact Macmillan cancer support or go to Jo’s Cervical Cancer Trust. You might have a number of different feelings when you're told you have cancer. You may feel shocked and upset.

You might also feel:

  • Numb
  • Frightened and uncertain
  • Confused
  • Angry and resentful
  • Guilty

You may have some or all of these feelings. Or you might feel totally different. Everyone reacts in their own way. Sometimes it's hard to take in the fact that you have cancer at all. Experiencing different feelings is a natural part of coming to terms with cancer. All sorts of feelings are likely to come and go. Talking to your friends and relatives about your cancer can help and support you. But some people are scared of the emotions this could bring up and won’t want to talk. They might worry that you won't be able to cope with your situation. It can strain relationships if your family or friends don't want to talk. But talking can help increase trust and support between you and them.

Help your family and friends by letting them know if you would like to talk about what’s happening and how you feel. You might find it easier to talk to someone outside your own friends and family. Macmillan have cancer information nurses you can call on their freephone 
0808 800 4040, from 9am to 5pm, Monday to Friday.

Or you may prefer to see a counsellor. Specialist nurses can help you if you’re finding it difficult to cope or if you have any problems. They can get you the help you need. They can also give you information. Cervical cancer and its treatment can cause physical problems that may affect how you feel about yourself. Your treatment may mean that you can no longer become pregnant. This can be very difficult to cope with if you were hoping to have children in the future. Even if you had already been through the menopause, having surgery to remove your womb can still be very upsetting. Your doctor will talk to you about how treatment may affect your fertility and what the options are. It might be possible to store your eggs or embryos before treatment starts.

Practical things you and your family might need to cope with include:

  • Money matters
  • Financial support, such as benefits, sick pay and grants
  • Work issues
  • Childcare

Talk to your doctor or specialist nurse to find out who can help. Getting help early with these things can mean that they don’t become a big issue later. As with most cancers, survival for cervical cancer is improving. One-year age-standardised net survival has increased from 74% during 1971-1972 to 83% during 2010-2011 in England and Wales

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Ovarian Cancer can be one of the trickier cancers to spot and diagnose in women and because of the this it is the 5th highest cause of cancer death in women. 8 out of 10 have symptoms early and 4 out of 5 will be misdiagnosed. 1 in 4 wait 6 months for a correct diagnosis.

These are quite shocking figures, so what are the symptoms?

Common symptoms include:

  • Increase in tummy size
  • Bloating
  • Abdominal/back/pelvic pain
  • Needing to pee more often or urgently
  • Bowel changes
  • Fatigue

Symptoms can be vague and variable.

But any of the following symptoms could also be an indication, if they last longer than 2 weeks, steadily worsen, are frequent or unusual:

  • Feeling full after eating only a few bites or loss of appetite
  • Diarrhoea, constipation, bowel or rectum feels full, change in bowel habits, constant urge to have a bowel movement, painful or burning bowel movements, rectal pain, painful defecation
  • Bloating, distension of abdomen, clothes around the waist feel too tight, feel an abdominal mass
  • Weight loss not because of dieting
  • Nausea, vomiting, heartburn, gas, burping, indigestion
  • Increased urinary frequency, need to urinate urgently, pressure on the bladder, leaking urine, burning sensation when urinating, need to urinate but unable to do so, unable to empty bladder completely, feeling full after urinating
  • Vaginal discharge, bleeding, spotting, deep pain on intercourse
  • Discomfort or pain in abdomen, pelvic region, or lower back

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The menopause is when a woman stops having periods and is no longer able to get pregnant naturally. Periods usually start to become less frequent over a few months or years before they stop altogether. Sometimes they can stop suddenly. The menopause is a natural part of ageing that usually occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, as a woman's oestrogen levels decline. In the UK, the average age for a woman to reach the menopause is 51. But around 1 in 100 women experience the menopause before 40 years of age. This is known as premature menopause or premature ovarian insufficiency. Most women will experience menopausal symptoms. Some of these can be quite severe and have a significant impact on your everyday activities.

Common symptoms include:

  • Hot flushes
  • Night sweats
  • Vaginal dryness and discomfort during sex
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Low mood or anxiety
  • Reduced sex drive (libido)
  • Problems with memory and concentration

Menopausal symptoms can begin months or even years before your periods stop and last around 4 years after your last period, although some women experience them for much longer.

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A survey of 1000 women, all aged 45 or over, based across the UK determined how significantly, and in what ways, women in both full time and part time employment are affected by symptoms of the menopause, and what policies and procedures are currently in place within organisations to provide help and support for matters of this kind.

Of the women we spoke to, 77% said that they were either currently going through the menopause or had already experienced it. 63% said that their working life had been negatively affected in some way by their symptoms. 73% of women reported having hot flushes, while 63% said they regularly felt tired or drowsy. 48% suffered with low mood, 47% struggled to concentrate and 43% had trouble with their memory. As a result of this, 34% of women said that they had developed depression and anxiety, while 29% had significantly lost self confidence. Only 6% of the whole sample group said that they did not experience any menopause symptoms at work.

58% of the women surveyed by Forth said that they were still affected by symptoms of the menopause, and that this sometimes caused them problems at work. 41% said that their poor concentration or forgetfulness has led them to make more mistakes, while 40% admitted to losing interest in their job as a result. 11% forwent the opportunity for promotion because of the menopause, and 8% believed that their symptoms played some part in them resigning their position.

Our study showed that 24% of respondents had called in sick as a result of the menopause and almost half of those individuals said they’d done so more than once. A staggering 90% of the women who responded to our survey said that their workplace had no help available at all when it came to employees going through the menopause. 72% - just under three quarters - of the women who responded to Forth’s survey said that their workplace needed to improve the level of support that was available for individuals experiencing symptoms of the menopause.

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Not all women want treatment to relieve symptoms of the menopause, but treatments are available if you find the symptoms particularly troublesome. The main treatment for menopausal symptoms is hormone replacement therapy (HRT), although other treatments are also available for some of the symptoms.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
HRT involves taking oestrogen to replace the decline in your body's own levels around the time of the menopause. This can relieve many of the associated symptoms. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines state that HRT is effective and should be offered to women with menopausal symptoms, after discussing the risks and benefits.

There are two main types of HRT: 

  • Combined HRT (oestrogen and progestogen) – for women with menopausal symptoms who still have their womb (oestrogen taken on its own can otherwise increase your risk of womb cancer)
  • Oestrogen-only HRT – for women who have had their womb removed in a hysterectomy

HRT is available as tablets, skin patches, a gel to rub into the skin or implants. HRT is extremely effective at relieving menopausal symptoms, especially hot flushes and night sweats, but there are a number of side effects, including breast tenderness, headaches and vaginal bleeding. It's also associated with an increased risk of blood clots and breast cancer in some women. HRT is not advisable for some women, such as those who have had certain types of breast cancer or are at high risk of getting breast cancer. Your GP can give you more information about the risks and benefits of HRT to help you decide whether or not you want to take it.


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In England, women are more likely than men to have a common mental health problem and are almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with anxiety disorders. 10% of mothers and 6% of fathers in the UK have mental health problems at any given time. More women than men experience depression. One in four women will require treatment for depression at some time, compared with one in 10 men. Many more girls than boys self-harm. Research suggests that between one in 12 and one in 15 young people self-harm in the UK.

Eating disorders are more common in women than men, with young women most likely to develop one. 1.9% of women and 0.2% of men experience anorexia in any year. Between 0.5% and 1% of young women experience bulimia at any one time. Women are twice as likely to experience anxiety disorders as men. About 60% of the people with phobias or obsessive compulsive disorder are women. Phobias affect about 22 in 1,000 women in the UK, compared with 13 in 1,000 men. Worldwide, more women are affected by PTSD than men, largely because women are exposed to more sexual violence. The risk of developing PTSD after any traumatic event is 20.4% for women and 8.1% for men. There are a range of factors as to why common mental health problems are more prevalent amongst women.

Women's increased life expectancy means they are more likely than men to outlive their partner and move into residential care. This means they are more at risk of depression associated with psycho-social factors. Most carers are women, whether they care for their children, partner, parents, other relatives or friends. Women carers are more likely to suffer from anxiety or depression than women in the general population. Three quarters of people who care for a person with a mental health problem are women and the average age of carers is 62 years.

Women in 'mid-life', aged 45-60 years, may be juggling caring commitments for children and older relatives as well as doing paid work and facing physical health problems. At the same time, mid-life women may find themselves in financial difficulty as a result of lifelong lower pay, part-time working, family caring, widowhood or divorce. This combination can increase their risk of experiencing mental distress.

The social factors particularly affecting women's mental health include:
More women than men are the main carer for their children and they may care for other dependent relatives too - intensive caring can affect emotional health, physical health, social activities and finances. Women often juggle multiple roles - they may be mothers, partners and carers as well as doing paid work and running a household. Women are overrepresented in low income, low status jobs - often part-time - and are more likely to live in poverty than men. Poverty, working mainly in the home on housework and concerns about personal safety can make women particularly isolated. Physical and sexual abuse of girls and women can have a long-term impact on their mental health, especially if no support has been received around past abuses.

Mental health problems affecting more women than men:
Although women are more likely to be affected by mental health disorders, they are also more likely to seek support. Women are more likely to have been treated for a mental health problem than men (29% compared with 17%). This reflects women's greater willingness to acknowledge that they are troubled and get support.

About 25% of people who die by suicide are women. Again, women's greater emotional literacy and readiness to talk to others about their feelings and seek help may protect them from suicidal feelings. Being a mother also makes women less likely to take their own life. Women's friendships with other women help protect their mental health, providing a source of support, particularly in hard times or at times of loss or change. Mentally healthy women generally talk about their feelings more than men and more often have stronger social networks of friends and family. They are more likely to tell someone when they are troubled, whether it is someone they are close to or someone who can offer medical advice. Good social support can play a part in preventing mental ill health and can help people recover from mental health problems.

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Women can receive support from all of the same avenues men can but here are some specialist charities which can help:

Refuge:
Advice on dealing with domestic violence:
Phone: 0808 2000 247 (24-hour helpline)
Website: www.refuge.org.uk

NSPCC:
If you are concerned for the safety of your children or someone elses:
Children's charity dedicated to ending child abuse and child cruelty.
Phone: 0800 1111 for Childline for children (24-hour helpline)
0808 800 5000 for adults concerned about a child (24-hour helpline)
Website: www.nspcc.org.uk

Rape Crisis:
To find your local services phone: 0808 802 9999 (daily, 12pm to 2.30pm and 7pm to 9.30pm)
Website: www.rapecrisis.org.uk

Beat:
If you are living with an eating disorder:
Phone: 0808 801 0677 (adults) or 0808 801 0711 (for under-18s)
Website: www.b-eat.co.uk


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